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Favelas - Architecture of Survival


Pedro Lobo

Brazilian contemporary problems have their origins in slavery. Slaves were “freed” in 1888, because plantation owners worked out that it would be cheaper to hire Afro-Brazilian or European labourers. Almost 8 million people were simply turned loose on the roads. No housing, placement, education, job opportunities or health care were provided. The “favelas” were formed by groups of slaves that moved to the cities in search of job opportunities. This culture of exclusion created problems of its own that are the roots of today’s violent drug and gang culture. Exclusion is the creative force behind the parallel world of the “favelas”: parallel power, parallel economy, parallel society, parallel lives. The city exposes its permanently open wounds, and, in the third world, the consequences of an idealized past that excludes significant population groups. The walls and furnishings of a room and the marks on a landscape can tell many things about the people who use or live in a given space. There are situations when a portrait can draw too much attention to the “persona” played by the person in the image and to whatever the viewer imagines or preconceives of such a person. Architecture and landscape photographs, on the other hand, are straightforward observations of marks that time and use, wear and tear, leave on the walls and on nature - indoors and outdoors, on the furniture, on the floor, on the shoreline, in the woods – mementoes of life that inexorably moves on. Images taken with respect for the dignity of the inhabitants and the natural elements, can be important tools for integration, respect and improvement of inter-human relations and with the environment. Photographs taken to observe and allow others to perceive dignity in personal, social or natural diversity. “Those who don’t know, cannot go in”. I photograph constructions from the slums – “favelas” – of Rio de Janeiro in the same manner I would photograph a monument or a wealthy home. I use architectural photography to make a statement about the people who dwell in such spaces. These images attempt to show the human dignity of the “favela” dwellers, in spite of all the difficulties faced by those who have no other choice but to live in these excluded communities. Most of the Brazilian middle class has never set foot inside a “favela”. It has no idea of the parallel universe that exists in such places. These images reflect the responsibility with which I use my work. They are not about crime, or criminals, poverty, or misery, but about human beings who found, or placed themselves in extremely adverse situations and decided not to give up the struggle for a dignified existence.


 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227343

The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227317

Store front decorated with the Brazilian flag to cheer the Soccer National Team during 2002 World Cup games. The community of Jacarezinho bloomed near an industrial region of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 60's. It is considered the second largest "favela" of Rio. All the industries were relocated elsewhere during the 90's, taking the jobs with them. Jacarezinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227319

This empty gravity defying wood shack had been recently bought by new arrivals to the 'favela". The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227320

Wood structured and walled shacks are slowly being relplaced by brick and concrete constructions. The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227321

Bar and snooker table in the community of Jacarezinho. this "favela" bloomed near an industrial region of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 60's. It is considered the second largest "favela" of Rio. All the industries were relocated elsewhere during the 90's, taking the jobs with them. Jacarezinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227322

Brick house built on the edge of the community under rock cliffs which are prone to colapse during the rain season, Bairro da Glória, Petrópolis, Brazil

Petr—polis - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227331

Stairway decorated with broken ceramic tiles. The community of Jacarezinho bloomed near an industrial region of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 60's. It is considered the second largest "favela" of Rio. All the industries were relocated elsewhere during the 90's, taking the jobs with them. Jacarezinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227333

Different types of "recuperated" wood pannels are used to fabricate wall of two story house. The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227334

Ms. Margarida and her dog inside the one room wooden shack where they live. The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. WITHOUT MODEL/PROPERTY RELEASE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53. France and Italy

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227336

Gravity defying constructions on the Providência rock hill side. The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227338

House with walls constructed with zinc corrugated roof tiles, Bairro da Glória, Petrópolis, Brazil

Petr—polis - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227340

Electrical and telephone wires create a tight web along the streets. Most are "gatos" (ilegal clandestine) connections. Cabel TV is often redistributed by drug gang controled enterprises. The community of Jacarezinho bloomed near an industrial region of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 60's. It is considered the second largest "favela" of Rio. All the industries were relocated elsewhere during the 90's, taking the jobs with them. Jacarezinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227341

The main access to the top of Providência hill decorated to cheer the Brazilian 2002 World Cup team. The community stablished at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227342

Sharp edged house built at intersection of Rua das Flores (Flower Street). The community of Jacarezinho bloomed near an industrial region of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 60's. It is considered the second largest "favela" of Rio. All the industries were relocated elsewhere during the 90's, taking the jobs with them. Jacarezinho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227381

New houses quickly built with wood and corrugated zinc by newly arrived north eastern migrant workers spring up daily at Rio das Pedras community.Rio das Pedras is a recent favela that was formed to house workers for the upper middle class neighbourhood of Barra da Tijuca. It is controled by a "militia" formed by policemen and firefighters, who expelled the drug gangs from its grounds. Episcopal churches and a local "neighbours association" attempt to maintain order in this fast growing community. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227387

Traditional wood house built on Providência hill side. The community established at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227388

Traditional wood house built on Providência steep rock hill side, ground floor walls and the roof are made of corrugated zinc and/or tin. The community established at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227397

Constant, uninterrupted land filling of the nearby lagoon is needed in order to acquire space for building new houses. Rio das Pedras is a recent favela that was formed to house workers for the upper middle class neighbourhood of Barra da Tijuca. It is controled by a "militia" formed by policemen and firefighters, who expelled the drug gangs from its grounds. Episcopal churches and a local "neighbours association" attempt to maintain order in this fast growing community. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227395

New houses quickly built with wood and corrugated zinc by newly arrived north eastern migrant workers spring up daily at Rio das Pedras community.Rio das Pedras is a recent favela that was formed to house workers for the upper middle class neighbourhood of Barra da Tijuca. It is controled by a "militia" formed by policemen and firefighters, who expelled the drug gangs from its grounds. Episcopal churches and a local "neighbours association" attempt to maintain order in this fast growing community. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227394

Young women chat in front of traditional wood house built on Providência hill side. The community established at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. WITHOUT MODEL/PROPERTY RELEASE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227393

New houses quickly built with wood and corrugated zinc by newly arrived north eastern migrant workers spring up daily at Rio das Pedras community. Rio das Pedras is a recent favela that was formed to house workers for the upper middle class neighbourhood of Barra da Tijuca. It is controled by a "militia" formed by policemen and firefighters, who expelled the drug gangs from its grounds. Episcopal churches and a local "neighbours association" attempt to maintain order in this fast growing community. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227389

New houses quickly built with wood and corrugated zinc by newly arrived north eastern migrant workers spring up daily at Rio das Pedras community.Rio das Pedras is a recent favela that was formed to house workers for the upper middle class neighbourhood of Barra da Tijuca. It is controled by a "militia" formed by policemen and firefighters, who expelled the drug gangs from its grounds. Episcopal churches and a local "neighbours association" attempt to maintain order in this fast growing community. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227405

Migrant workers are often the cheap labour employed to construct new buildings in which they cannot afford to live. Their solution is to invade public or private land, as near as possible to where they find work. At Rio das Pedras community in Barra da Tijuca, rich middle class neighbourhood in Rio de Janeiro it means claiming lagoon borders. Land filling, unsanitary drainage add to the colapse of these important ecological environments. Rio das Pedras, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227404

Kitchen of a new houses quickly built with wood and corrugated zinc by newly arrived north eastern migrant workers spring up daily at Rio das Pedras community. Rio das Pedras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53. France and Italy

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227403

Home and business are often built under the same roof. New houses quickly built with wood and corrugated zinc by newly arrived north eastern migrant workers spring up daily at Rio das Pedras community. Rio das Pedras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. WITHOUT MODEL/PROPERTY RELEASE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53. France and Italy

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227406

houses are constatly being constructed, renovated and added upon. New arrivals and expanding families enlarge the community in a steady basis. Rio das Pedras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227568

Traditional wood houses built on Providência hill side. The community established at Providência hill is considered to be the first "favela" built in Rio de Janeiro, it's first inhabitants being soldiers of the Canudos (1893/7) campaign who camped, and settled, near the War Ministry awaiting for their paychecks. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227408

Concrete houses are built on ground recently claimed of lagoons through land fills, often sink into the mud upon which they were constructed. Inhabitants often level the floor, build a second pavement and attempt to level their homes. Rio das Pedras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227567

Dusk alley scene, old man in front of bar, CV grafitti stands for "Comando Vermelho" (Red Comando) drug gang that controls Providência favela and charges "protection" money from businesses. Providência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

STRICT EDITORIAL USAGE CONFORM TO CAPTION AND CONTEXT. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227407

Houses in a expanding "favela" such as Rio das Pedras are improved constantly. New floors are added and, as in the middle ages cities, space is obtained enlarging the area of the top floors. Rio das Pedras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227801

Rocinha's densely populated alleys also serve to pass improvised water and sewage plumbing. Each house, or small group of houses, is responsable for their water and seage connections creating a maze of PVC tubes which are most of the time above ground and subject to breakage. Even though most houses have clandestine eletrical connections, to have eletricity meters (paying only nominal fees) is important to establish one's address, which in turn allows for bank accounts and employment. Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227805

Rocinha is know as Rio's (and the world's) largest "favela" and its name in Portuguese means "small planted field". Rocinha is one of the highest densely populated communities of the world but, because of its size, there are still bucolic, almost rural, locations. Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227804

Use of different materials (aluminium and wood windows), improvised plumbing, ad-hock placement of utilities are common in a "favela". My friend Edson is reflected on the mirror above the dink. Rio das Pedroas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227803

Some "favela" houses have the best views of Rio de Janeiro, this home looks at "Pedra da Gávea" (Top Sail Rock) mountain. Rocinha is know as Rio's (and the world's) largest "favela" and its name in Portuguese means "small planted field". Rocinha is one of the highest densely populated communities of the world but, because of its size, there are still bucolic, almost rural, locations. Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro - 00/00/0000

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.

 

Pedro Lobo / Picturetank LOP0227802

Rocinha's population density creates needs that are fulfilled with invention, creating intricate solutions for access and space. These stairways and clothes drying ropes are a good example. Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - 18/03/2007

WIDE EDITORIAL USAGE. Infos : +33(0)143 15 63 53.



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